Employee Engagement in Public Organizations in Malaysia

Penglibatan Pekerja dalam Organisasi Awam di Malaysia

Authors

  • Zuraina Mansor
  • Nor Siah Jaharudin
  • Norlelyy Mat Nata

Keywords:

Career Development, Supervisor-Subordinate Relationship, Work Life Balance, Employee Engagement, Public Organizations, Malaysia

Abstract

Organizations competing for talent in today’s strong job market are increasingly putting their attention to prevent fatigue and burnout and improve employee engagement. However, the challenges are intact and with so many variables that can influence and degrade engagement make it more difficult to determine which factors to be given focus and attention. Employee engagement can give effects to overall organization performance. Lack of understanding towards the influence of employee engagement can cause employers or managers not able to take appropriate and correct actions to improve employee motivation and performance. This paper is written to discuss the factors that influence engagement in the Public organizations in Malaysia. The respondents for this study were those who works in fourteen ministries in Putrajaya. A total of 350 questionnaires were distributed however, only 259 respondents have returned a complete questionnaires in this study. We found that factors such as career development, supervisor and subordinate relationship have a positive and moderate strength relationship with employee engagement. While another factor, work life balance, has a positive but low strength relative to employee engagement. The result suggested that the government has managed its staff career development and this has led to their engagement with their organisations. 

Organisasi yang bersaing untuk bakat dalam pasaran kerja hari ini semakin diberi perhatian untuk mengelakkan keletihan dan meningkatkan penglibatan pekerja. Walau bagaimanapun, cabaran-cabarannya adalah utuh dan dengan begitu banyak pembolehubah yang boleh mempengaruhi dan menurunkan keterlibatan menjadikannya lebih sukar untuk menentukan faktor-faktor mana yang akan diberikan tumpuan dan perhatian. Penglibatan pekerja boleh memberi kesan kepada prestasi keseluruhan organisasi. Kurangnya pemahaman terhadap pengaruh penglibatan pekerja boleh menyebabkan majikan atau pengurus tidak dapat mengambil tindakan yang sesuai dan tepat untuk meningkatkan motivasi dan prestasi pekerja. Arktikel ini ditulis untuk membincangkan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi penglibatan dalam organisasi awam di Malaysia. Responden di dalam kajian ini adalah mereka yang bekerja di empat belas kementerian di Putrajaya. Sebanyak 350 soal selidik telah diedarkan, tetapi hanya 259 responden telah mengembalikan soal selidik lengkap dalam kajian ini. Kami mendapati bahawa faktor-faktor seperti pembangunan kerjaya, penyelia dan hubungan subordinat mempunyai hubungan kekuatan positif dan sederhana dengan penglibatan pekerja. Walaupun faktor lain iaitu keseimbangan kehidupan kerja, mempunyai hubungan yang positif tetapi kekuatan yang rendah terhadap penglibatan pekerja. Hasilnya dari kajian, dicadangkan agar pihak kerajaan menguruskan pembangunan kerjaya kakitangannya dan ini telah membawa kepada penglibatan mereka dengan organisasi.

 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ahmad, K. Z., & Bakar, R. A. (2003). The association between training and organization commitment among white-collar workforce in Malaysia. International Journal of Training & Development, 7, 166-85.

Andrew, O. C., & Sofian, S. (2012). Individual factors and work outcomes of employee engagement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 40, 498-508

Anitha, J. (2014). Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 63(3), 308 – 323.

Ariani, D. W. (2015). Relationship with Supervisor and Co-Workers, Psychological Condition and Employee Engagement in the Workplace. Journal of Business and Management, 4(3), 34-47.

Aziz, S., Adkins, T. C., Walker, G. A., & Wuensch, L. K. (2010). Workaholism and work-life imbalance: Does cultural origin influence the relationship? International Journal of Psychology, 45, 72-79.

Bakker, A. B., Albrecht, S. L. & Leiter, M. P. (2011). Key questions regarding work engagement. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(1), 4-28.

Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2008). Towards a model of work engagement. Career Development International, 13(3), 209-223.

Balakrishnan, C., Masthan, D., & Chandra, V. (2013). Employee retention through employee engagement-A study at an Indian international airport. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 2(8), 9-16.

Bates, S., & Weighart, S. (2014). Executive presence: The X factor in employee engagement. Employment Relations Today, 41(3), 47-52.

Benson, G. S. (2006). Employee development, commitment and intention to turnover: A test of ‘employability’policies in action. Human Resource Management Journal, 16(2), 173-192

Berens, R. (2013). The Roots of Employee Engagement—A Strategic Approach. Employment Relations Today, 40(3), 43-49.

Bersin, J. (2014). Why companies fail to engage today’s workforce: The overwhelmed employee. Forbes. Retrieved from: https://www.forbes.com/sites/joshbersin/2014/03/15/why-companies-fail-to-engage-todays-workforce-the-overwhelmed-employee/#199b20484726.

Bilal, M., Zia-ur-Rehman, M., & Raza, I. (2010). Impact of family friendly policies on employees' job satisfaction and turnover intention (A study on work-life balance at workplace). Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business.

Bohlander, G. W., & Snell, S. (2013). Principles of Human Resource Management. 16th edition. South-Western: Cengage Learning.

Butler, S. S., Brennan-Ing, M., Wardamasky, S., & Ashley, A. (2014). Determinants of longer job tenure among home care aides: What makes some stay on the job while others leave?. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 33(2), 164-188.

Chang, P. L., & Chen, W. L. (2002). The effect of human resource management practices on firm performance: Empirical evidence from high-tech firms in Taiwan. International Journal of Management, 19(4), 622-631.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for The Behavioral Sciences. 2nd edition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Dajani, M. A. Z. (2015). The impact of employee engagement on job performance and organisational commitment in the Egyptian Banking Sector. Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 3(5), 138-147.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum.

Egan, T. M., Upton, M. G., & Lynham, S. A. (2006). Career development: Load-bearing wall or window dressing? Exploring definitions, Theories, and Prospects for HRD-Related Theory Building. Human Resource Development Review, 5(4), 442–477.

Eisner, S. P. (2005). Managing generation Y. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 70(4), 4-17.

Festing, M., & Schäfer, L. (2014). Generational challenges to talent management: A framework for talent retention based on the psychological-contract perspective. Journal of World Business, 49(2), 262-271.

Fornell, C., & Cha, J. (1994). Partial least squares. In R. P. Bagozzi (Ed.), Advanced Methods of Marketing Research. Cambridge, England: Blackwell.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 328–388.

Gordon, S. (2010). Once you get them, how do you keep them? Millennial librarians at work. New Library World, 111(9), 391–398.

Government Transformation Programme. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.pemandu.gov.my/gtp/.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., & Thiele, K. O. (2017). Mirror, mirror on the wall: a comparative evaluation of composite-based structural equation modeling methods. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(5), 616-632.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. In New challenges to international marketing (pp. 277-319). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Hudson. (2005). The case for Work/Life Balance: Closing the Gap between Policy and Practice, Retrieved from: www.au.hudson.com/portals/AU/documents /Hudson2020_Work-Life.pdf.

Johari, J., Adnan, Z., Yean, T. F., Yahya, K. K., & Isa, S. N. (2013). Fostering Employee Engagement through Human Resource Practices: A Case of Manufacturing Firms in Malaysia, Jurnal Pengurusan, 38(2013) 15 – 26.

Kahn, W.A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692-724.

Kaifeng, Y., & Marc, H. (2006). The performance-trust link: Implications for performance measurement. Public Administration Review, 66(1), 114-126.

Keaveney, S. M. (1995). Customer switching behavior in service industries: An exploratory study. Journal of Marketing, 59, 71-82.

Lazar, I., Osoian, C., & Ratiu, P. (2010). The role of work-life balance practices in order to improve organizational performance. European Research Studies, 13(1), 201.

Li, X., Sanders, K., & Frenkel, S. (2012). How Leader–Member Exchange, Work Engagement and HRM Consistency Explain Chinese Luxury Hotel Employees’ Job Performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31 1059-1066.

Lin, J. T. P., & Lee Ping, N. C. (2016). Perceived Job Autonomy and Employee Engagement as Predictors of Organizational Commitment. Undergraduate Journal of Psychology, 29(1).

Liyanage, H. M., & Gamage, P. (2017). Factors influencing employee engagement of the generation Y employees. In Proceedings of APIIT Business & Technology Conference, 66-77. Colombo, Sri Lanka. Retrieved from: http://conference.apiit.lk/pdf2/Business/MBAT201708.pdf.

Macey, W. H., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(1), 3-30.

MacLeod, D., & Clarke, N. (2009). Engaging for Success: Enhancing Performance Through Employee Engagement, London: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.

Maslach, C., Schaufelli, W.B., & Leiter, M.P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52 (1), 397-422.

May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 11-37.

Mayo, A. (2016). The measurement of engagement. Strategic HR Review, 15(2), 83-89.

McCracken D. M. (2002). Winning the talent war for women: Sometimes it takes a revolution. Harvard Business Review.

McKnight, D. H., Phillips, B., & Hardgrave, B. C. (2009). Which reduces IT turnover intention the most workplace characteristics or job characteristics?. Information and Management, 46, 167-174.

McPhie, N. A. G. (2008). The power of federal employee engagement. A Report by the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board. Retrieved from: https://www.mspb.gov/mspbsearch/viewdocs.aspx?docnumber=379024&version=379721&application.

Miller, H. S. (2014). The 10 Best Practices for Enhanced Employee Engagement. Retrieved from: www.millergroup.com.

Mishra, K., Boynton, L., & Mishra, A. (2014). Driving employee engagement: The expanded role of internal communications. International Journal of Business Communications, 51, 183–202.

Mun, Y. S., Suhaimi, M. N. Abdullah, S. S., Abdul Rahman, S., & Nik Mat, N. K. (2012). Employee Engagement: A Study from the Private Sector in Malaysia. Human Resource Management Research, 3(1), 43-48

Murray, J. (2008) Teacher educators’ induction into higher education: work-based learning in the micro communities of teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 31(2), 117-133

Musgrove, C., Ellinger, A. E., & Ellinger, A. D. (2014). Examining the influence of strategic profit emphases on employee engagement and service climate. Journal of Workplace Learning, 26, 152–171.

Nelson, B., & Spitzer, D. R. (2000). The 1001 rewards &recognition fieldbook: The complete guide. 1st edition. Workman Publishing Company.

Osbourne, S., & Hammoud, M. S. (2017). Effective employee engagement in the workplace. International Journal of Applied Management and Technology, 16(1), 50–67.

Perry, J. L., Mesch, D., & Paarlberg, L. (2006). Motivating employees in a new governance era: The Performance Paradigm Revisited. Public Administration Review, 66, 505-514.

Peterson, S. L. (2004). Toward a theoretical model of employee turnover: A human resource development perspective. Human Resource Development Review, 3, 209–227.

Quah, D. (2014). Human Capital Top Challenge For Ceos Worldwide. The Star. Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com.my/business/business-news/2014/06/24/human-capital-top-challenge-for-ceos-worldwide/.

Ramayah, T., Cheah, J., Chuah, F., Ting, H., & Memon, M. A. (2018). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) using SmartPLS 3.0: An Updated Guide and Practical Guide to Statistical Analysis. 2nd edition. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Pearson.

Rayton, B., Dodge, T., & D’Analeze, S. (2012). Employee engagement: The Evidence, London: Engage for Success. Retrieved from: http://opus.bath.ac.uk/35611/1/The_Evidence.pdf.

Richman, A. (2006). Everyone wants an engaged workforce, how can you create it?. Workspan, 49(1), 36-39.

Robinson, D., Perryman, S., & Hayday, S. (2004). The drivers of employee engagement. Report-Institute for Employment Studies.

Rodriguez, J. O., & Shaw, M. E. (2014). Leveraging Employee Engagement for Competitive Advantage. Journal of Business Leadership Today, 5 (2), 1-25.

Rutherford S., (2005). Different Yet Equal. In Burke R.J., Mattis M.C. (Eds.), Supporting Women's Career Advancement. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar

Saber, D. A. (2013). Generational differences of the frontline nursing workforce in relation to job satisfaction: What does the literature reveal?. The Health Care Manager, 32, 329–335.

Sahoo, C. K., & Mishra, S. (2012). A Framework towards Employee Engagement: The PSU Experience. ASCI Journal of Management, 42 (1), 94-112.

Saks, M. A., (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21 (7). 600-619.

Sardar, S., Abdul Rehman, C. H., Yousaf, U., & Aijaz, A. (2011). Impact of HR practices on employee engagement in banking sector of Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2(9), 378-389.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(1), 293-315.

Schwartz, J., Bersin, J., & Pelster, B. (2014). Introduction to Global Human Capital Trends 2014. Deloitte University Press.

Singh, J. (2015). Employees Engagement and Family Friendly Initiatives A Study of Selected Corporate Enterprises in India (PhD Dissertation, Punjabi University). Retrieved from: http://hdl.handle.net/10603/32454.

Susi, S., & Jawaharrani, K. (2011). Work life balance: The key driver of employee engagement. Asian Journal of Management Research, 2(1), 474-483.

Swindall, C. (2007). Engaged Leadership: Building a Culture to Overcome Employee Disengagement. Hoboken, N. J.: John Wiley & Sons.

Thomas, C. (2007). A new measurement scale for employee engagement: Scale development, pilot test, and replication. Academy of Management Proceedings, 1- 6.

Yates, K. (2008). Becoming an ROI Builder: Delivering Effective Employee Communication. Employment Relations Today, 35 (1), 19-23.

Wagner, R. & Harter, J. K. (2006). The Element of Great Managing. Kindle Edition. Washington: Gallup Press. Retrieved from: https://www.hrbartender.com/images/Gallup.pdf.

Welch, M. (2012). Appropriateness and acceptability: Employee perspectives of internal communication. Public Relations Review, 38, 246–254.

Published

2018-11-30

How to Cite

Mansor, Z. ., Jaharudin, N. S., & Mat Nata, N. . (2018). Employee Engagement in Public Organizations in Malaysia: Penglibatan Pekerja dalam Organisasi Awam di Malaysia. Journal of Management and Muamalah , 8(2), 25-42. Retrieved from http://jmm.kuisjournal.com/index.php/jurnal/article/view/40